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Αποτελέσματα μετάφρασης

Αποτέλεσμα μετάφρασης

Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels. Glucose is obtained from food and is the main source of energy for cells. Insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the pancreas and helps glucose enter the cells and be used as energy. The reduced secretion of insulin or the inability to use it effectively, does not allow its action, as a result of which glucose does not enter the cells but remains in the blood. (hyperglycemia). The 3 main types of diabetes mellitus: Type I Diabetes (Former Insulin Dependent or Juvenile Diabetes) Type I diabetes mellitus is due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. As a result, no insulin is produced, resulting in increased levels of glucose in the blood and urine. Type II Diabetes (Adult Diabetes) Type II diabetes mellitus usually occurs at older ages and is due to gradually decreasing insulin secretion from β-cells, often in the context of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy (tested between 24 and 28 weeks) and is the only form of diabetes that resolves (after delivery) and does not follow the person throughout life, but can cause perinatal complications and maternal and newborn health problems. Other types of Diabetes They are due to mutations of the HNF1A gene that affect the number and function of pancreatic β cells (MODY- Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young), to diseases of the exocrine part of the pancreas (cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis), to drugs (glucocorticoids in the treatment of HIV/AIDS). Symptoms The classic symptomatology of diabetes mellitus includes polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss. In type 1 diabetes, the onset of the disease is usually sudden, that is, the disease and the symptoms, if it occurs, develop rapidly. In type 2 diabetes, the disease invades gradually and the symptoms (constant thirst, weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination) may escape the attention of the patient, resulting in a long period of time before the diagnosis is made. Diagnosing Diabetes According to the American Diabetes Association, in order to make a diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus with certainty, one of the following criteria must be present: Fasting plasma glucose (sample taken after at least 8 hours of fasting) ≥ 126 mg/dL Plasma glucose value 2 hours after administration of 75g oral glucose ≥200 mg/dL A1c (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) ≥ 6.5% In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia, a random plasma glucose value ≥200 mg/dL Treatment of Diabetes Diabetes medication is aimed at regulating blood glucose levels, maintaining the overall health of the diabetic patient and avoiding complications. It consists of the administration of injectable insulin or antidiabetic tablets or a combination of these and should be accompanied by a healthy diet and exercise The patient should be subject to long-term glycemic control at regular intervals. Also recommended: Stop smoking Control of blood pressure and cholesterol levels Increase in physical activity The choice of the treatment regimen for the diabetic patient is made exclusively by his doctor based on the type of diabetes, his history and the state of his overall health. In patients with type I diabetes, the administration of injectable insulin (administered with special pens or with a special device adjusted to supply the patient with insulin in the appropriate amount) is necessary to ensure the desired glucose levels. In patients with type II diabetes, glycemic control can be achieved initially with weight control, exercise, and diet along with oral antidiabetic medications. Until a few years ago the only oral antidiabetic drugs were sulfonylureas that aimed to lower blood sugar by increasing insulin production. Modern diabetes drugs target insulin resistance and production as well as other causes of high blood sugar. Insulin will be needed by those patients who will fail the glycemic control that they will do after they have taken the above measures. The most common way of administering insulin is subcutaneous administration. The type of insulin, dose and frequency of administration depend solely on the needs of each patient. For this reason, the regimen of insulin therapy is completely individualized.